The Science of Reading
Wexler, N. (2018, Apr 13). Why American Students Haven't Gotten Better at Reading. The Atlantic. Retrieved from
Schools usually focus on teaching comprehension skills instead of general knowledge—even though education researchers know better.
Baker, S.K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N.J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from http://improvingliteracy.org.
Three ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers include: teach children to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech; teach children letter-sound relations; and teach children to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.
Baker, S.K., Fien, F., Nelson, N. J., Petscher, Y., Sayko, S., & Turtura, J. (2017). Learning to read: “The Simple View of Reading”. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs,
National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from improvingliteracy.org.
Accurate word reading and text comprehension require careful, systematic instruction. And once formal reading instruction begins in school, instruction in both of these areas should occur on a daily basis.
Grigorenko, E.L., Compton, D.L., Fuchs, L.S., Wagner, R.K., Willcutt, E.G., & Fletcher, M. (2020, Jan.). Understanding, Educating, and Supporting Children with Specific Learning Disabilities: 50 Years of Science and Practice. American Psychologist, 75(1):37-51. doi: 10.1037/amp0000452.
Given the high rate of occurrence of SLDs and their lifelong negative impact on functioning if not treated, it is important to establish and maintain effective prevention, surveillance, and treatment systems involving professionals from various disciplines trained to minimize the risk and maximize the protective factors for SLDs.
Abstract only - full article available to the public in November 2020.
Deans for Impact (2015). The Science of Learning. Austin, TX: Deans for Impact
The purpose of The Science of Learning is to summarize the existing research from cognitive science related to how students learn, and connect this research to its practical implications
for teaching and learning.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). The Three-Cueing Model: Down for the Count? Education News. Retrieved from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-three-cueing-model-%3A-Down-for-the-count-Columnist/eb70c3170e14a50574be2568668ef1d29d53f12f
"Children who routinely adopt alternative cues for reading unknown words, instead of learning to decode them, later find themselves stranded when texts become more demanding and meanings less predictable. The best route for children to become fluent and independent readers lies in securing phonics as the prime approach to decoding unfamiliar words (Primary National Strategy, 2006b, p.9).”